Question 1 The term positivism came from the writings of A Franz Gall B Auguste Comte C Charles Darwin September 2023

Question 1 The term positivism came from the writings of A Franz Gall B Auguste Comte C Charles Darwin 2023


1) The term “positivism” came from the writings of

A) Franz Gall.

B) Auguste Comte.

C) Charles Darwin.

D) Cesare Lombroso.

2) According to Arseneault and Trembley’s recent study of teenage boys in Canada, minor abnormalities in the shape of the __________ were associated with an increased risk of psychiatric and behavioral problems.

A) teeth

B) tongue

C) ears

D) All of the above

3) According to William Sheldon, __________ have the greatest likelihood of becoming criminal offenders.

A) cyclothmorphs

B) endomorphs

C) ectomorphs

D) mesomorphs

4) Research suggests that exposure to the color __________ can calm people who are feeling angry or agitated.

A) purple

B) pink

C) blue

D) brown

5) Which of the following variables may moderate the relationship between temperature and criminal behavior?

A) Time of day

B) Season of the year

C) Day of the week

D) All of the above

6) According to Goddard, a tendency toward __________ was inherited.

A) criminality

B) alcoholism

C) feeblemindedness

D) degeneracy

7) Which of the following is not a characteristic of an XYY male?

A) Shorter than average height

B) Overrepresented in prisons and mental hospitals

C) Less than average intelligence

D) Suffers from acne or other skin disorders

8) The work of __________ contributed to the development of the field of behavioral genetics.

A) James Q. Wilson

B) Freda Adler

C) Sir Francis Galton

D) Edward O. Wilson

9) According to sociobiologists, the violence and aggressiveness associated with territoriality is often reserved for

A) acquaintances.

B) relatives.

C) strangers.

D) family members.

10) Which of the following is not a criticism of sociobiology?

A) There is no rational basis for applying findings from animal studies to humans.

B) It fails to integrate biology into the paradigm.

C) It does not properly depict basic human nature.

D) It does not identify the importance of culture, social learning, and individual experiences in shaping behavior.

11) James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein wrote

A) Crime and Human Nature.

B) Sisters in Crime.

C) Sociobiology.

D) Creating Born Criminals.

12) Which of the following is not one of the early signs or indicators of psychopathy?

A) Cruelty to animals

B) Teenage pregnancy

C) Firesetting

D) Bed-wetting

13) Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of antisocial personality disorder?

A) Callous unconcern for the feelings of others

B) Prone to blame others for the behavior that brought the patient into conflict with society

C) A low tolerance to frustration

D) The inability to establish relationships

14) A possible psychogenetic cause of antisocial personality disorder is

A) a separation from the mother during the first six months of life.

B) a low state of arousal.

C) a malfunction of some inhibitory mechanisms.

D) none of the above

15) According to Eysenck, a(n) __________ is generally irrational, shy, moody, and emotional.

A) schizophrenic

B) extrovert

C) neurotic

D) psychotic

16) The concept of __________ holds that the human mind may choose to keep certain aspects of itself out of consciousness.

A) Thanatos

B) displacement

C) catharsis

D) repression

17) Giving a good child a toy is an example of a

A) positive punishment.

B) positive reward.

C) negative punishment.

D) negative reward.

18) Under federal law, a criminal defendant found not guilty by reason of insanity must have a psychological or psychiatric examination and a hearing held within __________ days after the not guilty verdict.

A) 80

B) 40

C) 10

D) 20

19) __________ helps police investigators better understand people wanted for serious crimes.

A) Psychological profiling

B) Sublimation

C) Deterrence

D) Selective incapacitation

20) The concentric zone model was applied to the study of juvenile delinquency by

A) Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld.

B) Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay.

C) W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki.

D) Robert Park and Ernest Burgess.

21) Operation Padlock in New York City was based on the concept of

A) criminology of place.

B) strain theory.

C) deviant subcultures.

D) the ecological school.

22) Relative deprivation theory was proposed by

A) Steven F. Messner and Richard Rosenfeld.

B) Emile Durkheim.

C) Robert Agnew.

D) Robert K. Merton.

23) Neutralization theory is most closely associated with the work of

A) Robert Park and Ernest Burgess.

B) Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin.

C) Gresham Sykes and David Matza.

D) Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson.

24) According to James Clark, the black subculture of violence was created by generations of __________ violence.

A) black-on-white

B) white-on-black

C) white-on-white

D) black-on-black

25) According to differential opportunity theory, drug use predominates in the __________ delinquent subculture.

A) criminal

B) conflict

C) deviant

D) retreatist

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. What is the nature of sociological theorizing? What are the assumptions upon which sociological perspectives on crime causation rest? What three key sociological explanations for crime are discussed at the start of this chapter?

2. List and discuss the six major principles or central features of all psychological theories as they relate to crime causation.

3. According to your textbook, what have research studies in the field of genetics had to say about possible causes of crime?
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